- Glossary of Terms for Apparel
Glossary of Terms for Apparel
GLOSSARY OF GARMENT TECHNOLOGY
4-Needle Stitched - Double-Needle stitched but with four stitches.
2-Way Zipper - A zipper with two zipper pulls so that it can be unzipped from either direction.
1x1 Rib - Also 2x2 rib knit trim. The width of each rib is the same as the width between each rib. This helps the garment retain its elasticity.
Abrasion Resistance - The ability of fabric to withstand loss of appearance and function through the destructive action of rubbing. Fabrics that are labeled "abrasion resistant" are usually higher durable and long lasting.
Acrylic - (Fiber) The Generic name for man-made fibers derived from polyacrylonitrile. Features a soft, wooly hand: wash and wear performance; brilliamt high shade colors; good sunlight and wrinkle performance.
All-Weather Microfiber - 100% Polyester Microfiber with waterproof coating and fully taped seams. 100% waterproof.
Allen Solley Placket - A one piece placket that is hidden after sewing. The process utilizes the existing fabric for the outside placket face.
Antimicrobial - finishing process which protects against odor-causing bacteria.
Antron Nylon - A taffeta nylon fabric with a reflection or shiny finish.
Anti-Pill - A treatment applied to garments primarily to resist the formation of little balls on the fabric’s surface due to abrasion during wear.
Argyle - A popular design for knitted fabrics, both hand and machine knit. Two or three colors generally are used in a diamond-shaped pattern.
Baby Pique - Very small pique knit. (See Pique Knit).
Back Pleats - Tiny folds in the material on the back of a garment that allow for more room and comfort.
Back Yoke - A piece of fabric that connects the back of a garment to the shoulders. This allows the garment to lay flat and drape nicely.
Backing Yarn - The yarn which is napped on the inside of a fleece garment, that creates the soft lining of fleece.
Banded Cuffs - A piece of single-ply material, usually ribbed, which is added to the sleeve ends to form a cuff.
Bartacked - Reinforced stitching, i.e. rivets used in reinforcing pockets on jeans.
Basket Weave Knit - process of weaving yarns back and forth resulting in a two-tone appearance.
Berber - A texture very similar to Sherpa, but with a heavier, more woolen texture used for outerwear.
Bias - fabric which has been cut on the diagonal.
Bi-Swing Back - A rear insert panel typically used in jackets. Extra material is gathered or folded to allow more freedom of movement in the shoulder area. Sometimes called an "action back".
Binding - A sewing method that encases an edge or seam with fabric.
Biopolished - Finishing process by adding any enzyme to provide sheen and lend a soft, silky hand.
Birdseye Jacquard - A small geometric pattern with a center dot knit into the fabric.
Blanket Stitch - A decorative stitch used to finish an un-hemmed blanket. The stitch can be seen on both sides of the blanket.
Bleach Wash - The process of washing fabric or a garment with bleach to soften and distress the look of the fabric.
Blends - Combining two or more types of staple fibers in one yarn to achieve color mixtures such as Heather, unusual dyeing variations or better performance characteristics. Blends of natural and man made fibers are common today, i.e. cotton/polyester.
Binding - A sewing method that encases an edge or seam with fabric.
Boc - Specialized knitting technology created to enhance garment breathability and bi-modular stretch.
Bonded Fleece - Fleece produced with multiple layers that are bonded together creating a thicker and heavier weight garment.
Box Pleat - A single, uniform fold in the center back of a garment to allow for more room and comfort.
Brim - Also known as a Bill or Visor. Usually made of plastic surrounded by fabric. The fabric used is most commonly canvas, but can also be brushed cotton, wool, denim, suede, etc. The brim is held down with symmetrical rows of stitching. Some brims are pre-curved, some com relatively flat which you have to curve yourself.
Broadcloth - Closely woven fabric with very fine embedded ribs and a lustrous finish. Made in several weights, fibers, and blends. Resembles fine poplin. (Worsted and woolen broadcloths have a glossy finish).
Brushed Cotton - Cotton fabric that is brushed to remove all the excess lint and fibers from the fabric, leaving an ultra soft, smooth finish.
Brushed Napping - Knit or woven fabrics of wool, cotton, or synthetics. The result is a flannel-like texture.
Brushing - A finishing process for knit or woven fabrics in which a brush or other abraiding devices are used to raise a nap on fabrics and create a soft surface texture.
Buckram Backing - Stiff fabric used to give shape and form to items like caps, belts, etc. A buckram lining is found on the inside of "Constructed Caps" front 2 panels (the crown). This is a very stiff lining that makes the front of the cap stand up.
Burguntal Cloth - Constructed from 100% nylon. This durable base fabric has a water-repellent finish applied to the face, which prevents water droplets from soaking into the nylon. The back is usually coated with Polyurethane for added water resistance and wind protection.
Butterfly Collar - A pointed collar that will lay flat against the garment, but can be brought up and secured to ensure warmth.
Button-Through Sleeve Placket - A small placket located on the sleeve, by the cuff, which contains a single button closure.
Byron Collar - Collar with large points and not much of a roll. A pointed, shirt-style collar.
Canvas - A heavy, closely woven fabric of cotton, hemp, or flax, originally used for making tents and sails.
Cami-Strap - Very narrow shoulder straps.
Camp Shirt - A shirt with an open collar and patch pockets, typically meant to be worn un-tucked.
Cap Button - This is the button at the top of the cap that helps to hold all of the panels together.
Cap Sleeves - Sleeve type used mainly in ladies' styles but is also used in unisex styles. Standard t-shirt sleeve length is approx. at the elbows. Cap sleeves would fall midway between the elbow and shoulder.
Carding - A fiber cleaning process in yarn spinning.
Carded Cotton - Yarn that has been cleaned, aligned and formed into a continuous untwisted strand but has gone through additional spinning processes like combing or ring spinning.
Carefree - Expect an easy care, machine washable fabric with little or no ironing required.
Cargo Pockets - Large expandable pockets sewn to the shell with side pleats.
Casual Microfiber - 100% Polyester Microfiber fabric that is water repellent and wind resistant.
Cavalry Twill - A type of Twill Weave (Pattern of the Twill).
Center Line/Center Crease - Helps line up garment for screen print or embroidery. Disadvantage: if line is not actually centered, it is mire difficult to center a logo.
Certified Organic - Textiles that are certified organic are made from raw organic materials that originate from organic cultivation, processed using sustainable textile production methods where 100% certified organic natural fibers come from inspected, toxic free organic farming in compliance with regulations for organic production.
Chambray - A dressier fabric woven with white threads across colored threads.
Chevron - A type of twill weave that is very similar to Herringbone.
Cire Nylon - A lustrous surface effect produced on the surface of a fabric.
Classic Fit - a traditional missy cut that is tailored, but not form fitting.
Coil Zipper - a continuous piece that has been formed into a coil shape and sewn into a piece of fabric webbing.
Collarette - The trim around the neck of a t-shirt or sweatshirt.
Colorfastness - The ability of a fabric to withstand exposure to sunlight, dry cleaning and laundering without fading or running. The types of fiber, dye and treatment used for setting the color determines =how colorfast a fabric will be.
Combed Cotton - Cotton yarn that has been combed to remove short fibers and straighten or arrange longer fibers in parallel order resulting in a smooth yarn used in finer garments. A secondary cleansing process performed to remove additional impurities from the staple fiber after carding.
Compaction - A shrinkage control technique used in fabric manufacturing.
Constructed - The crown of a cap using Buckram to give the shape even when not being worn.
Coolmax™ - Certification mark of the DuPont Company, for knitted fabrics made of Polyester fibers that are grooved on the outside to facilitate better wicking and moisture evaporation.
Cool Mesh - Similar to a pique knit but with a more open texture for increased breathability. Features a soft hand for better comfort.
Cool Weave - Similar to a pique knit, but with a more open texture for increased breathability. Slightly larger knit than Cool Mesh, it has a denser feel.
Cord Locks - A stopper or toggle on a drawcord that keeps the cord from retracting into the garment.
Corduroy - Cut pile fabric woven with either wide or narrow wales formed by using extra filling. The back may be either plain or twill weave.
Core Vents - Efficiently dissipate excess body heat and perspiration vapor.
Course - Loops of horizontal knit fabric.
Coverseamed - A finish in which two needles are used to create parallel rows of visible stitching. It is used around the neck, armholes, waistband, and wrists of garments to create a cleaner, more durable finish.
Cover Stitched Armhole Seam - Usually found in knit shirts, referring to the inside armhole seam being serged or finished.
Crew Neck - a round collarless neck.
Crocking - The tendency of excess dyes to rub off. Napped a pile fabrics in deep colors are more likely to crock. With pigment-dyed fabrics, this can occur if the garment is not washed before worn.
Crown - The front two panels of a cap.
Cut - The number of needles utilized per inch when knitting fabric.
Decorative Stitching - stitching/embroidery which serves no purpose except to enhance the items' appeal and surface interest.
Delrin Zipper - A heavy nylon zipper with large teeth often exposed for style.
Denier - A density of the weave in a nylon or polyester product.
Dobby - A decorative weave, usually geometric, that is woven into the fabric.
Double Knit - A fabric knitted on a circular machine by interlocking loops with a double stitch (2 sets of needles) to form a ribbed cloth with a twice-knitted appearance.
Double Needle Hem - Durable row of stitching at the seam.
Double-Needle Stitched - A finish used on a sleeve and/or bottom hem that uses two needles to create parallel rows of visible stitching. It gives the garment a cleaner, more finished look and adds durability.
Double Needle Safety Stitch - Seams are top-stitched with two needles running side by side.
Double Pleated Back Yoke - The back piece of a garment which contains two individual pleats that provide more room and comfort.
Dry-Fiber - A high activity sportswear fabric that absorbs, wicks and dries faster than average golf wear.
Drop Needle - A knit fabric characterized by vertical lines within the cloth. Manufactured by “dropping” a needle from the knitting cylinder.
Drop Tail - A design feature where the back of the garment is longer then the front.
Dry-Fiber - A high activity sportswear fabric that absorbs, wicks and dries faster than the average golf wear.
DryPoint Semi-Oxford - A modified basket weave of 100% Nylon that is coated with ether-based poly urethane. Extremely durable and waterproof.
Duck Cloth - Tightly woven fabric that provides wind and snag resistance.
Durable Press (DP) Rating - a rating given to the fabric of a garment to describe it's wrinkle resistance. 3.0 is considered to be "wrinkle resistant". 3.5+ is considered to be "wrinkle free".
Dyed-To-Match - Buttons or trims that are the same color as the garment onto which they are sewn.
EcoSpun - A fleece outerwear fabric made from at least 50% materials reclaimed from recycled plastic soda pop bottles.
Elasticity - The ability of the fibers to bounce back or recover when released from tension or stretch.
End-on-End - A 2-ply weave of different color yarns that run parallel against each other so that both colors are visible.
Enzyme Washed - A laundering process in which a catalytic substance is added to create a chemical change in the fabric resulting in a very soft finish, smoother appearing surface and reduced shrinkage.
Epaulet - A shoulder strap or collar trim that is styled with a military look.
Etched Tone Buttons - A more upscale horn tone button with an etched pattern.
Extended Tail - When the back portion of the garment is longer than the front. Assists in keeping the garment tucked in during normal activity.
Eyelets - Small holes or perforations made in a series to allow for breathability. Finished with either stitching or brass grommets.
Face - Traditionally, the side of a fabric that offers a finished or polished appearance. The face is normally used for outward print or decoration.
Face Yarn - The exterior yarn of a fleece garment.
Feeder Stripe - A 1/8" repeating stripe.
Felled Seam - Seam made by turning under or folding together and stitching the seamed materials to avoid rough edges.
Filament - A fine or thinly spun thread or fiber.
Fine Gauge Knit - Refined in texture and drape "Fine" refers to the diameter of the yarns or stitches.
Finishing - A general term which covers the treatment of fabric to give a desired surface effect. Some finishes add luster, while others give a dull effect. Finishes often contribute to the "feel" or "hand" of a fabric
Flannel - Plain or twill weave, can be fabric with a slightly napped surface.
Flash - A flashing process is necessary when screen printing a light ink color over a dark fabric. A layer of White must be layed down first and "flashed" or dried before laying down additional coats of ink.
Fleece - A multi-yarn fabric identified by a soft napped interior and a smooth exterior.
Four Needle Stitching - Used to reinforce the waistband in shorts or sweatpants.
Full Cut - Refers to a garment's fit as being generous and roomy.
Garment Washed - A wash process where softeners are added to finished garments to help the cotton fibers relax or bloom. The result is a fabric with a thicker appearance, reduced shrinkage and a softer hand.
Garment Dyed - A dyeing process that occurs after the garment is assembled.
Glen Plaid - Popular Scottish pattern for sportswear characterized by checks of two different sizes with similar color patterns. Made in many grades of fabric.
Graded Collar - The size of the collar changes proportionally with the size of the shirt.
Greige (Gray) Goods - A term used when a fabric is in the unbleached or un-dyed state. Knitted or woven fabrics of all fibers in an unfinished state, after they have been woven and before dyeing or finishing.
Grommets - Metal, plastic or stitched holes creating fabric reinforcement at stress points.
Gusset - An added panel of fabric in a seam to provide action movement.
Hand - Quality or characteristic of fabrics that are perceived by the sense of touch; e.g. firmness, softness, fineness, drape.
Heather - Blended fibers that are combined to create a variable colored effect; e.g. heather grey. This fabric typically contains three fibers: cotton, polyester or rayon. Never 100% cotton, another fiber must be added with the cotton in order to achieve the necessary color. NOTE: If a fabric contains 95% cotton, it can be legally labeled as 100% cotton.
Henley - A knit shirt with a button placket at the neckline, no collar. Copied from a shirt originally worn by rowers at Henley, England.
Herringbone - A chevron-like or zig-zag pattern, knit into fabric alternating direction row by row.
High Profile - A cap style with a high slope structured with buckram–a stiff fabric lining. Less fitted to the head.
HyventMicro Faille Weave - a 100% coated Nylon flat ribbed fabric that is waterproof, windproof and breathable with excellent abrasion and durability characteristic. Treated with a durable water-repellent finish to shed water.
Hollofil - High loft insulation made with hollow polyester fibers. The finished product is lightweight and warm.
Horn Tone Buttons - Buttons that appear to be manufactured from horn.
Houndstooth - A medium sized broken check effect that is knit into the fabric.
Inset/Set-In Placket - A placket that is constructed from a separate piece of fabric and sewn in separately. This placket is visible after it is sewn into the garment.
Intarsia - Derived from Italian meaning "inlay". A flat knit fabric with patterns knitted in solid colors, so that both sides of the fabric are alike.
Interlock Knit - Double knit construction makes this the heaviest of the three knits. Similar to a Jersey knit except both the front and back of the fabric look identical. Interlock is the tightest weave, which gives the smoothest surface and finest hand. Often used for t-shirts and golf shirts.
Iridescent Buttons - Buttons with a lustrous, rainbow-like hue.
Jacquard Knit - A pattern knit directly into the fabric during the manufacturing process. Typically, 2 or more colors are used. Woven jacquard fabrics include brocade, damask and tapestry. In knits, jacquard is typically a jersey fabric with a different and more complex needle selection.
Jersey Knit - This fabric has a definite smooth side, (the outside", and a textured side, (the inside) - commonly found in t-shirts.
Johnny Collar - A knit, stand-up collar.
Kangaroo Pocket - A large front single pocket, with side openings which allow both hands to be inserted, meeting in the middle.
Kasha Lining - A jacket lining featuring cotton flannel, napped face and imitation chambray back.
Knit Fabric - Fabric made by intertwining yarn or thread in a series of connected loops.
Kodel™ - A Polyester fiber created and trademarked my Eastman Kodak Co.
Lamborder - A flat rib knit, with specified dimensions, that is used to function as a placket and placket facing.
Lamination - A process of binding one fabric to another by means of heat or adhesive bonding.
Locker Loop - A looped piece of fabric in the neck of a garment for the convenience of hanging the garment on a hook. Can also be located at the center of the back yoke on the inside or outside of a garment.
Locker Patch - A semi-oval panel sewn into the inside back portion of a garment, just under the collar seam, to reinforce the garment and minimize stretching when hung on a hook. The patch also allows for the garment tag or label to be sewn below the neckline to help prevent irritation.
Low Profile - A cap style with a low slope, usually 3" or less, that is more closely fitted to the head. Can be either structured or unstructured.
Lycra - A man made elastic textile yarn with excellent stretch and recovery properties. Lycra™ is a DuPont trade marked name, often known as Spandex. This fiber can stretch 500% without breaking. Holds dyes well and is heat resistant.
Marled Yarn - Twisting a solid color yarn with a yarn of various colors to create a varied color effect.
Matte Taslan - See Taslan but with a dull finish.
Medium Weight - A classification for fabric of 22 to 24 single yarn, where the number of yarn denotes the overall fabric weight.
Melange - A mix of different colors of yarns knit together to create a heathered effect.
Mercerized - A product that has gone through a process to produce a smooth, lustrous hand and lustrous appearance.
Mesh - Similar to a pique knit, but with a more open texture for increased breathability. Larger knit than Cool Weave.
Micro Fleece - A high density, anti-pilling fleece made of knit micro-fibers that are brushed less than a regular fleece garment. It has a high capacity for warmth without the weight.
Microfiber - This fabric is tightly woven from a very fine poly thread and has a sueded finish for a luxurious, soft feel. Microfiber fabric is naturally water repellent due to its construction process and when specially treated, can also be waterproof.
Micro Cord - A very fine wale cord.
Micro-Stripe - An ultra-fine stripe that is knit into the fabric.
Mid Profile - A cap with a slope height in between that of a High Profile and Low Profile. It is most often structured with buckram.
Mini-grid - Small square pattern created by yarn dyed thread.
Mother of Pearl Logo Buttons - Buttons made from Mother of Pearl, with a logo inscribed on them.
Nap - The soft or fuzzy surface of fleece achieved by shredding the backing yarn.
Nail Head Design - A jacquard knitting pattern in which the jacquard forms a design similar to small nail heads.
Needle out - Term which refers to the pattern made when a stitching needle is removed from the knitting process.
Non-iron - finish allows garment to stay smooth and crisp without ironing throughout the day. Collars and cuffs stay flat and flawless.
Non-Woven Fabrics - Materials that are produced by interlocking or bonding fabrics together.
Nublend™ - The combination of a knitting and spinning process developed by JERZEES® for their blended fleece that helps prevent pilling.
Nylon Zipper - A sturdy cord zipper that is self-lubricating.
Ombre - A graduated or shaded effect of color or texture used in a stripe motif.
Omni Dry™ - Process keeps you warm and dry by wicking moisture. The evaporation rate increases with the amount of moisture.
Open-End Spinning - A technique to create yarn using a combing roll and rotor. A system of spinning based on the concept of introducing twist to yarn by rotating the yarn end at a gapin the flow of fibers between the delivery system and the yarn package; a much faster operation than ring spinning. Open-end yarn has a coarser hand than ring spun-cotton.
Open End Yarn - The yarn is prepared by blowing fibers into small a small rapidly spinning drum. A cylinder catches the loose fibers almost like a cotton candy machine catches its sugary filaments. The speed of the spinning process is very fast and much more inexpensive than traditional spinning. Fabrics made with openend yarn are less durable and tend to pill more easily.
Open Collar - A type of collar that does not button down.
Optical Brightener - A fabric brightening additive.
Ottoman Knit - Also known as "cool knit" or "cool weave". This fabric has a small box-like pattern and certain wicking properties to keep moisture away from the skin.
Ounces Per Sq. Yd. - A measurement of fabric weight.
Overdyed - A process in which yarn dyed fabrics or piece dyed garments are put through an additional dye color to create unique colors.
Oxford - A type of fabric where the fibers are either cotton or blended man-made fibers.
Patch Pocket - A pocket attached to the outside of a garment.
Peach Wash Finish - A "peach fuzz" like finish applied to washed poplin with a light nap for a soft, supple feel/
Pearlized Buttons - Buttons that have a pearl-colored hue.
- Performance Trio - Combined functional features of stretch and recovery, moisture management and antimicrobial.
Pewter Buttons - Buttons that have a dull, metallic hue.
Pewter and Horn Tone Buttons - Buttons that incorporate pewter and horn tone, usually one encompasses the other.
Pigment Dyed - A type of dye used to create a distressed or washed look.
Piece Dyed - This term is used when the knitted cloth is dyed, prior to being assembled into a finished product.
Pile Fabric - Fabric with cut fibers or uncut loops, which stand up densely on the surface. Usually has a plush feel (i.e. bath towel, velvet).
Pill Free® - A process developed by Lee® to help prevent pilling on fleece garments.
Pilling - The accumulation of fibers on the surface of a fabric, caused by wear and washing. In 50/50 fabric, cotton fibers tear and become tangled with the stronger fibers on the surface of the garment. Higher cotton content results in less pilling.
Pima - Peruvian pima cotton is one of the world's finest natural fibers grown and harvested in the foothills of the Andes. It is prized for it's extraordinary softness and durability.
Pinpoint Oxford - A lightweight, soft, cotton-like fabric with small, 2x1 basket (rib) weave repeats. It is of high quality, with a very smooth surface often used for shirts.
Piping - A narrow piece of fabric sewn between two pieces for fabric or decorative purposes.
Pique Knit - A knitting method that creates a fine textured surface that appears similar to a birds nest, waffle weave or honeycomb. It offers an open knit surface with a coarser hand than jersey or interlock and used primarily in short-sleeve knit polo shirts. (b.) A tightly knit fabric with a rough or raised surface - typically found in higher quality sport or golf shirts.
Placket - The part of a shirt or jacket where the garment fastens or buttons together.
Ply yarn - A yarn formed by twisting together one or more single yarns or strands in one single operation.
Pointelle - A decorative stitch which is knitted or woven into the fabric.
Polyester - A wrinkle resistant fabric of man-made filament fibers.
Poly-filled - A warm polyester lining found in the body or sleeves of outerwear garments. It has more loft than a regular nylon lining.
Polynosic - A type of fabric that has a twill texture with a very soft "silk-like" feel. This fiber will also protect against 95% of the UV rays from the sun.
Popcorn Pique - Alternating rows of 2 different pique knits; one knit is a baby pique, while the other is a larger pique that resembles small circles knit closely together.
Poplin - A tightly woven, durable, medium weight cotton or cotton blend fabric made using a rib variation of the plain weave which creates a slight ridge effect.
Pre-Shrunk - This term refers to a manufacturing process whereby the fabric is compressed before a garment is sewn from it. The fabric decompresses during washing, compensating for any natural shrinkage. "Pre-shrunk" does NOT mean "Pre-washed".
Print Pro™ - A knitting process developed by Hanes® for their fleece garments that creates a tighter knit for a better printing surface.
Printed Fabric - A fabric with a pattern printed on it with an ink or dye.
Princess Darts - A tapered tuck sewn from the bottom hem to the arm hole to adjust the fit of a garment.
Princess Seam Detailing - Seams found in the front or back of a garment that create a tailored silhouette.
PVC - A polyurethane coating that is added to make garments water resistant.
Quarter Turning - Eliminates the center line by rotating the shirt at 90 degrees so that the fold line is then under the arms. Imprinters like this feature because it eliminates the center line.
Quilted (jacket) - A jacket featuring a lining with two or more layers and a padded filling.
Raglan Sleeves - A type of sleeve sewn in with seams slanting outward from neck to underarm. The sleeve continues in one piece to the collar so there are no seams at the shoulder allowing for ease of movement.
Rapid Dry - A fabric designed with a unique weave to wick away moisture from the body.
Reactive Dyes - Dyestuffs that form chemical bonds with cotton fibers.
Resign - A chemical compound used in the finishing process of fabric and sometimes collars and cuffs. Helps impact wash and wear durable press properties to fabrics which contain natural fibers.
Reinforced Placket - Stitching in the shape of a rectangle at the bottom of a placket, for reinforcement.
Resort Cuff - Also known in the industry as a "logo cuff", describes a cuff that has a small blank space in the pattern to provide a spot for embroidering.
Reverse Placket - See Placket, but reversed for women’s garments.
Rib Knit - A textured knit that has the appearance of vertical lines. It is highly elastic and retains "memory".
Ring Spun Yarn - Yarn made by continuously twisting and thinning a rope of cotton fibers. The twisting makes the short hairs of cotton stand out, resulting in a stronger yarn with a significantly softer hand. Found in more expensive polos and tees.
Ringer - A t-shirt with collar and sleeve cuffs of a different color than the body of the shirt.
Ripstop - Very fine woven fabric often nylon, with coarse strong yarns spaced at intervals so that tears will not spread.
R-Tek™ Fleece - 100% polyester fleece with an anti-pill finish which prevents the formation of little balls on the surface of the fabric.
Running Stitch - A stitch that is spaced equally in one direction, with the underside stitching being half the length of the external side.
Sandwashed - A washing process in which the fabric is washed with very fine lava rocks or rubber/silicon balls resulting in a softer fabric with a relaxed look and reduced shrinkage.
Scouring - It is the most important process in finishing textiles. It cleanses the fabric in totality or its surface by washing and an abrasion or rubbing treatment.
Sculpted Hem - A hem that is softly rounded for fashion detail.
Seamless Collar - A collar that is knit in a circle and set circular. There are no "joining" seams on the collar.
Self-Fabric Collar - A collar that is constructed from the same material as the body of the garment.
Self-Fabric Sweatband - Refers to headwear where the sweatband is constructed with the same fabric as the crown.
Self Trim - Trim constructed from the body fabric.
Serge Stitch - An overcasting technique done on the cut edge of the fabric to prevent unraveling.
Set-In Sleeves - Style of sleeve, which is sewn into the shoulder seam. The seam is straight up and down from the shoulder seam to the underarm as opposed to the neck in raglan sleeves.
Sherpa - As a garment is woven, the outside of the fabric is brushed with a wire brush to give the garment a soft "fuzzy" feel.
Shirttail - A scoop in the front and/or back of a shirt that is longer than the sides.
Shoulder to Shoulder Taping - Shoulder seams, as well as the neck seam are covered by tape or binding. This reinforces shoulder and neck seams and reduces separation of the seams.
Shrinkage - The reduction in width and length that takes place when a garment is washed. Residual shrinkage is the percentage of shrinkage that occurs at the first washing. Shrinkage that occurs on each subsequent washing is called progressive shrinkage.
Shrinkage Rate - Approx. 4% to 5% on most 100% cotton garments after pre-shrinking or compacting.
Side Vents - Slits found at the bottom of side seams. They are fashion details that allow for comfort and ease of movement.
Silk - Known for being one of the finest textiles because it is strong, soft, absorbent, and has a brilliant sheen. It is the only natural fiber to come in a filament form from a silk worm.
Singles - A term used to indicate the diameter of a yarn; the smaller the number, the thicker the yarn. Usually expressed as "16/1" or "18/1".
Single Needle - Single row of stitching at seam, see "Top Stitching". Provides a more comfortable seam for the wearer.
Slash Pockets - A pocket that has to be entered through a slash on the outside of the garment. The pocket pouch is suspended from and attached to the slash.
Sportex - Sanded poplin
Sport Silk - Name given to modal rayon/polyester fabrication to exemplify its wash and wear capabilities.
Staple - Synonym for fiber length in spun tarns. Long staple yarn being the best.
Stone Washed - A washing process in which the fabric or garment is heavily washed with lava rocks or rubber/silicon balls. The result is a softer fabric with a distressed or weathered look and reduced shrinkage.
Storm Flap - A strip of fabric sewn under or over the front zip or snap closure of an outerwear garment to protect against wind and moisture.
Structured - A cap style with a lined front consisting of buckram, a stiff fabric, that controls the slope of the cap.
Sueded Cotton - A fabric that goes through a brushing process to raise the nap and give the garment a soft hand.
Sueded Nylon - (See Sueded Cotton).
Supplex™ - A DuPont Company trademarked fabric made of nylon fibers available in a side range of finishes. It is durable, lightweight, and soil-resistant, colorfast, quick drying and breathable.
Tactile™ - Trademark of the DuPont Company, for a filament nylon fiber.
Taffeta - A basic plain weave that is crisp and smooth on both sides, usually with a sheen. Warp and filling of approximately the same count. May be plain, printed, striped, checked, plaid, or antique with uneven threads.
Tailored Fit - A more form-fitting style
Taped Seams - A strip of fabric sewn to the seam of a garment to prevent distortion. In outerwear, taped seams aid in waterproofing. increased comfort and durability for the wearer.
Taslan - Refers to how the fibers are woven and the resulting texture. Used mainly in outerwear garments, Taslan is a durable and water repellent nylon fabric with a slightly shiny surface.
Teklon - A rugged, stronger Taslan nylon that is water repellent.
Tencel™ - A trademark of Courtlands. A fabric made from the cellulose found in wood pulp which is processed into a silk-like, delicate fabric.
Terra-Tek™ - A durable and water repellent Taslan with a matte finish.
Terry Velour - A type of material with uncut loops on both sides. It has a soft, plush feel and is water absorbent - typically found in better quality towels and robes.
Texturing - To achieve a matte, cotton-like texture, a jet of air is blown on a fiber to give it a rough, non-reflective surface. Textured fibers offer greater bulk and airiness to a fabric without increasing its weight.
Three-End Fleece - Face, tie-in and backing yarns combined to form a fleece fabric.
Tie In Yarn - The joining yarn between the face and backing yarns in fleece fabrics.
Tipping - The embellishment of a garment by adding some type of trim to the edges of cuffs, plackets, pockets or hems for decoration.
T-Weave Dobby - A type of woven fabric that contains a simple t-shape pattern which is created in the weaving process.
Tricot - French for warp-knitted fabric. Tricots are flat knitted with fine ribs on the face (lengthwise) and ribs on the back (widthwise).
Tricot Lining - A very lightweight nylon lining most often used in shorts.
Triple-Needle Stitched - See Double-Needle Stitched but with 3 stitches.
Tone on Tone Jacquard Collar - See Jacquard Knit. The two colors being used are the same.
Top Stitching - A design feature, both decorative and functional, that is an additional means of securing fabric plies whereby the original seam is folded under and sewn down.
Tubular Collar - Collar which is knit in a tube form so it has no seams.
Tubular Knit - Fabric manufactured in a complete circle without seams.
Tuck-In Tails - A shirt constructed so the back hem is longer than the front. This aids in keeping the shirt tucked-in during strenuous activities.
Tuck Stitch - Refers to the look of the knit where some stitches are actually under the other stitches. Gives the shirt a waffle-weave type texture and look.
Twill - A fabric whose weave is made up of 2 or 3 warp yarns or threads to every one weft. Weave with diagonal ribs and large number of variations. Diagonals may be set at sharp or blunt angles, may be embedded or raised. Important types include flannels, surges, gabardines and surahs.
Twill Tape Placket Lining - Twill tape is attached to the inside of the placket for a fashion effect.
Un-Constructed/Un-Structured - This is a type of cap. It means that there is no buckram lining inside the crown. The crown of this cap won't stand up by itself. The crown only has shape when placed on the head.
Underarm Grommets - Small holes in the armpit area to allow breathability and air circulation.
Under Layer - Random stitches sewn to under-cover stitches and lettering to stabilize fabric and depth.
Under Visor - The colored material on the bottom side of the visor.
Unstructured - A low profile cap style with a natural low sloping crown. No buckram has been added to the crown.
V Patch - A section of material in a V shape that is sewn onto a garment directly under the collarette. Can provide support against stretching the neck opening and is also a style component.
Velcro - Closure material. Consists of fabric with small hooks that stick to a corresponding fabric of small loops.
Vents, Front & Back - Allow for breathability and may aid in ease of decoration, allowing the garment to be hooped and embroidered with no show-through on the inside of the garment. Some vents are tacked down and are for fashion purposes only.
Vertical Princess Pleats - Vertical seams, rising from the hem, which are found in the front or back of a garment that create a tailored silhouette.
Visor (Peak) - The front of the hat or cap that extends out from the front panel and acts as a sunshade. Also a type of headwear that consists of the peak or sunshade only so that the top of the head is exposed.
W - Z
Waffle Weave/Knit - A stitch used in knit goods to produce a series of square waffle-like designs.
Wales - The individual loops of a course (vertical rows of loops) also, when referring to corduroy, the amount of ridges per inch in the fabric.
Warp - Lengthwise yarns found in all woven fabrics. The warp is stronger and denser than the weft (crosswise) yarns.
Washer Nylon - A nylon garment treated with a special finish to produce a crinkled effect.
Waterproof - The ability to prevent the penetration of water.
Water Resistant - Possessing the ability to resist wetting and the penetration of water.
Weathered Twill - A special dye process resulting in a softer fabric with a weathered appearance that will continue to enhance with each wash.
Weight - Usually measured in ounces per yard.
Welt Collar and/or Cuffs - A single ply fabric with a finished edge that is used for 2-ply collars and cuffs on sport shirts and short sleeve garments.
Windowpane - A large bar-like design resembling window panes.
Wood Tone Buttons - Buttons that simulate a wood appearance.
Wrinkle Free - A finish which permanently presses a garment that can be applied before or after the garment is produced.
Yarn Dyed - Yarn that has been dyed prior to the weaving or knitting of the garment.
Yarn Size - A gauge of yarn weight
Yoke - A part of a garment fitted closely to the shoulders.